This publication contains the proceedings of a seminar held in Toulouse, France, on 10th, 11th and 12th June 1980, under the auspices of the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General for Agriculture, Division for the Coordination of Agricultural Research, as part of a programme of research on beef production. The seminar was intended to bring together available experience on the utilisation of hereditary muscular hypertrophy for meat production in the member states of the European Communities. Although the phenomenon of double muscling has been exploited in various countries, particularly France, Italy and Belgium, different breeds are used and different methods of exploitation employed. An attempt was therefore made to bring together the collective experience of participants. Contributions ranged from those on the inheritance of muscular hypertrophy to alternative production systems and from fundamental studies of muscle growth to practical ways of selling the additional musrile found in animals with muscular hypertrophy. The collection of assembled papers and discussions thus represents one of the most extensive reviews of the subject that has been attempted.
Protein timing is a popular dietary strategy designed to optimize the adaptive response to exercise. The strategy involves consuming protein in and around a training session in an effort to facilitate muscular repair and remodeling, and thereby enhance post-exercise strength- and hypertrophy-related adaptations. Despite the apparent biological plausibility of the strategy, however, the effectiveness of protein timing in chronic training studies has been decidedly mixed. The purpose of this paper therefore was to conduct a multi-level meta-regression of randomized controlled trials to determine whether protein timing is a viable strategy for enhancing post-exercise muscular adaptations. The strength analysis comprised 478 subjects and 96 ESs, nested within 41 treatment or control groups and 20 studies. The hypertrophy analysis comprised 525 subjects and 132 ESs, nested with 47 treatment or control groups and 23 studies. A simple pooled analysis of protein timing without controlling for covariates showed a small to moderate effect on muscle hypertrophy with no significant effect found on muscle strength. In the full meta-regression model controlling for all covariates, however, no significant differences were found between treatment and control for strength or hypertrophy. The reduced model was not significantly different from the full model for either strength or hypertrophy. With respect to hypertrophy, total protein intake was the strongest predictor of ES magnitude. These results refute the commonly held belief that the timing of protein intake in and around a training session is critical to muscular adaptations and indicate that consuming adequate protein in com- bination with resistance exercise is the key factor for maximizing muscle protein accretion. The backmatter of the book contains a few articles concerning the merits of open access publishing.
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