This third edition reviews the epidemiology, policies, programs and outcome indicators that are used to determine improvements in nutrition and health that lead to development.Â Â This greatly expanded third edition provides policy makers, nutritionists, students, scientists, and professionals with the most recent and up-to-date knowledge regarding major health and nutritional problems in developing countries. Policies and programs that address the social and economic determinants of nutrition and health are now gaining in importance as methods to improve the status of the most vulnerable people in the world. Â Â This volume provides the most current research and strategies so that policy makers, program managers, researchers and students have knowledge and resources that they can use to advance methods for improving the public's health and the development of nations.Â The third edition of Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries takes on a new context where the word "developing" is now a verb and not an adjective.
In this book the authors propose a novel understanding of the meaning and treatment of psychopathology. They consider contemporary explanations of mental health problems such as cognitive distortion, impeded self-actualisation or unconscious conflict, and make the argument that these explanations are incomplete. Instead, they view psychological symptoms as expressing a 'mixed reality.' By 'mixed reality' they intend to emphasise that troubled thoughts, feelings and behaviour not only reflect disorder, but also contain a normalising or healing tendency - analogous to the healing tendency that is activated in any living organism which finds itself in a wounded state. In the interest of providing a context or framework for understanding this healing tendency, they investigate the philosophical underpinnings of the notions of normality and abnormality. They define normality in terms of the complementarity between the uniqueness of personal existence and the linking force of relationship, and see abnormality in terms of the breach of this complementarity. In view of this emphasis on 'being' and 'relationship' they consider various philosophical approaches to the question of how things 'are' in themselves and how they 'relate' to one another. In exploring these issues they examine, with particular attention, the works of three contemporary thinkers: Graham Harman, Kenneth Gergen and Kenneth Schmitz. This examination leads the authors to propose a personalist vision in which they understand the accord of 'to be' and 'to relate' as ontologically grounded. Moreover, they propose that the intelligibility of epistemological, moral/ethical and psychological dimensions of human experience depends on this ontological grounding. The complementarity or 'trusted connection, ' which they consider to be at the basis of all human experience, becomes a key feature of their interpretive approach. They speak, therefore, of the priority of the hermeneutics of belief over the hermeneutics of suspicion. Theirs is a reversing, so to speak, of the approaches of Marx, Nietzsche and Freud, whom Paul Ricoeur has described as the 'Masters of Suspicion.' The authors' emphasis on belief in trusted connection leads them to consider the differential status between the ontological dimension of human experience, on the one hand, and the epistemological, moral/ethical and psychological dimensions of that experience, on the other. They view the realities pertaining to the healing effect of trusted connection as having an ontological priority over, and influence upon cognitive, moral and psychological concerns. They speak of the 'horizontal' structure of the former and the 'vertical' structure of the latter, and focus on an essential compatibility between horizontal and vertical. They see an 'original normality' implied by the ontological foundation of this compatibility; however, in view of their emphasis on the healing of breach, they do not simply entertain an idealistic vision of 'original normality.' They focus, rather, on the realistic potential of healing 1) the breach of complementarity, 2) the breakdown of hierarchy and 3) the incompatibility between the complementary and the hierarchical. In the framework they develop, the complementary has a normative influence on the hierarchical such that meaning has priority over power, service over dominance, co-operation over competition, wonder over control, truth over possession, etc.... And this is the case not only in times of harmonious adjustment, but also, if not especially, in times of struggle or difficulty. These considerations lead them to view the psychotherapeutic endeavour as a hopeful enterprise.
Understanding the links among social environment, emotion, behavior, and illness is a growing theme in medical and health education. The booming development in this field is reflected in the growth of disciplines such as health psychology, psychosocial epidemiology, and behavioral medicine. Until now, however, the basic literature has been awkwardly dispersed across medical and social science journals. Now the most important articles of the past thirty years are brought together in a single volume. The thirty-one articles are grouped around themes such as "Life stress, social support and health," "Psychophysiological processes in diseases," and "Behavioral interventions in medicine." The articles include such provocative topics as "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease?," "Psychological response to breast cancer: effect on outcome," and "Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold." Each section is prefaced by an up-to-date review of the subject by the volume editors. Uniting biomedical, psychological, and social perspectives, this text will be an invaluable resource for both scholars and students of medicine, health sciences, and clinical and health psychology.