Previous books on growth management in the United States favor balanced growth, which suggests that growth and environmental protection represent equally legitimate objectives. Taking issue with the balanced growth position, this book argues that further growth is unsustainable and that growth management must focus on ensuring ecological sustainability. The book opens with the arguments supporting current global limits to growth, and then shows that the growth management movement in the United States represents an institutionalized form of ongoing growth accommodation, which is incongruous with sustainable behavior.
The book also documents the historical pro-growth tendency of the planning profession and contends that this bias is impeding the necessary transition to a sustainable future. In addition, it presents the standards courts use to decide the legality of growth management programs and suggests that those standards do not present insurmountable obstacles to stopping future growth. In conclusion, this book presents operational measures of ecological sustainability and argues that the growth imperative currently driving the growth management movement must be replaced by the imperative of ecological sustainability.
"This book discusses the effects of taxation on the economy and its development. It aims to provide the reader with the necessary empirical information, while at the same time presenting an overview of the latest theory. In doing so, it touches on many relevant policy issues. This important book will appeal not only to economists but also to public choice scholars and political scientists."--BOOK JACKET.
Following Volumes III and IV that dealt with the fracture mechanics of concrete emphasizing both material testing and structural application in general, it was felt that specimen size and loading rate effects for concrete require further attention. The only criterion that has thus far successfully linearized the highly nonlinear crack growth data of concrete is the strain energy density theory. In particular, the crack growth resistance curves plotting the strain energy density factor versus crack growth known as the SR*curves are straight lines as specimen size and loading steps or rates are altered. This allows the extrapolation of data and provides a useful design methodology. This book is unique in that it is devoted specifically to the application of the strain energy density theory to civil engineering structural members made of concrete. Analyzed in detail is the strain softening behavior of concrete for a variety of different components including the influence of steel reinforcement. Permanent damage of the material is accounted for each increment of loading by invoking the mechanism of elastic unloading. This assumption is justified in concrete structures where the effective stiffness depends primarily on the crack growth rate and load history. Crack growth data are presented in terms of SR-curves with emphases placed on scaling specimen size which alone can change the mode of failure from plastic collapse to brittle fracture. Loading rate effects can also be scaled to control failure by yielding and fracture.